Bladder stone


What Is a Bladder Stone?


Bladder stones, also known as vesical calculi, are hard mineral deposits that form in the bladder. They typically develop when minerals in the urine crystallise and clump together over time, forming solid masses. Bladder stones can vary in size and composition, ranging from small, gravel-like particles to larger, golf ball-sized stones. These stones can cause significant discomfort and disrupt the normal functioning of the urinary system.

Types of Bladder Stone

Bladder stones can be classified into different types based on their composition. The most common types include:

Calcium Stones

These stones are primarily composed of calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate. They often form due to excessive calcium levels in the urine or a diet rich in oxalate-containing foods.

Uric Acid Stones

Uric acid stones result from increased levels of uric acid in the urine. Individuals with conditions like gout or those who consume a diet high in purines are at an increased risk.

Struvite Stones

Struvite stones are typically caused by urinary tract infections (UTIs) and are composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate. These stones can grow rapidly and may require prompt medical intervention.

Cystine Stones

Cystine stones are relatively rare and occur due to a genetic disorder that causes an excess of cystine in the urine.

Symptoms of Bladder Stone

The symptoms of bladder stones can vary depending on the location and size of the stone. Some common symptoms include:


Bladdеr stonеs can cause damagе to thе bladder or kіdneys, urinary tract infections, urinary tract blockages, and other complications іf thеy are not treatеd.

Risk Factors of Bladder Stone

Many factors can increase the risk of developing bladder stones, including:


Causes of Bladder Stone

Bladder stones can develop due to various causes:

  • Urinary tract infections (UTIs): Certain bacteria can produce substances that promote the formation of bladder stones. These stones are often composed of struvite and can grow rapidly if left untreated.
  • Dehydration: Insufficient fluid intake can lead to concentrated urine, which increases the risk of stone formation. Adequate hydration helps dilute urine and prevent crystallisation of minerals.
  • Diet: A diet high in salt, animal protein, or oxalate-rich foods can contribute to stone formation. Oxalate, present in foods like spinach and tomato, can bind with calcium present in urine and form stones.
  • Metabolic disorders: Some medical conditions, such as gout and hyperparathyroidism, can lead to abnormal levels of certain substances in the urine, increasing the likelihood of stone formation.
  • Urinary tract abnormalities: Structural abnormalities or obstructions in the urinary tract like enlarged prostate or urinary tract strictures, can contribute to stone formation.

How to Prevent Bladder Stone

While bladder stones can be distressing, several preventive measures can help reduce the risk of their formation:

  • Hydration: Staying adequately hydrated is crucial to maintain a healthy urinary system. Drink plenty of water throughout the day to ensure optimal urine dilution.
  • Balanced diet: Consume a healthy and balanced diet which is low in salt and animal protein. Incorporate foods rich in fibre and increase your intake of fruits and vegetables.
  • Limit oxalate-rich foods: If you are prone to calcium oxalate stones, limit your consumption of oxalate-rich foods, such as spinach, rhubarb, and chocolate.
  • Manage underlying conditions: If you have a medical condition that predisposes you to stone formation, work closely with your doctor to manage it effectively.
  • Timely treatment of UTIs: If you experience recurrent urinary tract infections, seek prompt treatment to prevent the development of struvite stones.
  • Regular check-ups: Routine medical check-ups can help identify any underlying conditions or risk factors early on, allowing for timely intervention and preventive measures.

Treatment of Bladder Stone

When it comes to treating bladder stones, a personalised approach is essential. Treatment options may vary based on the size, composition, and location of the stones. Your healthcare provider may recommend one or more of the following:


Your healthcare provider will assess your individual situation and recommend the most appropriate treatment option based on the specific characteristics of your bladder stones.

Procedures Available for Bladder Stone

At CritiCare Asia Hospitals, we offer a range of procedures to effectively treat bladder stones:


Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) utilises high-energy shock waves to break down bladder stones into smaller fragments that can pass through the urinary tract naturally.


This minimally invasive procedure involves the insertion of a cystoscope through the urethra into the bladder to crush and remove stones. It allows for faster recovery and minimal scarring.

Surgical removal

For larger or more complex stones, open surgery or minimally invasive surgery (laparoscopic or robotic-assisted) may be necessary. These procedures provide direct access to the bladder for stone removal.

Our skilled urologists and medical team will assess your condition and advise the most suitable procedure based on factors such as stone size, composition, and overall health.