Know more about Gynaecological Cancer and It's types

2023-10-27 16:28:26
Know more about Gynaecological Cancer and It's types

Gynaecological cancer is cancer that develops in female reproductive organs such as the ovaries, uterus, cervix, vagina, and vulva. In this blog, we will talk about different types of gynaecological cancer, their symptoms, treatment options as well as the importance of early detection.


Understanding Gynaecological Cancer

Cancer, in its simplest terms, is a condition where the body's cells start growing uncontrollably. When this happens within a woman's reproductive organs, it's known as gynecologic cancer. There are five main types: cervical, ovarian, uterine, vaginal, and vulvar. There's also a sixth type, fallopian tube cancer, which is very rare.

These five types of gynecologic cancer begin in different parts of a woman's pelvis, which is the area between the hip bones and below the stomach. Each type has its own distinct characteristics, including signs, symptoms, risk factors, and prevention methods. Even though any woman can be affected, those who are older, typically over 50, are more likely to face it. Detecting gynecologic cancer early is crucial for successful treatment

Importance of Awareness- Why Knowing Matters

Except for cervical cancer, there is no simple or precise way to detect any gynecologic cancers, it is important to be aware of the signs, risks, causes, and preventative measures. There are several treatments for different gynaecological cancers. It depends on the type of cancer and how fast it spreads.

Exploring the Different Types of Gynaecological Cancer

Ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer is a condition where irregular cells within the ovaries or fallopian tubes multiply uncontrollably, which is a challenge that demands attention. Did you know that the odds of a woman encountering ovarian cancer during her life are roughly 1 in 78? (These statistics don’t count low malignant potential ovarian tumors.)(Source.) It's often quiet in its early stages with no signs and symptoms which makes detection challenging

As the cancer advances, it might start revealing its presence through a set of signs. These are like whispers from your body, telling you that something might be amiss:

  • Pelvic or Abdominal Discomfort: Feeling uncomfortable or bloated around your pelvis or abdomen? This is the big signal, the most common sign that ovarian cancer might be lurking.
  • Appetite and Eating Changes: If your eating habits take a sudden turn – feeling full quickly or dealing with nausea – it could be your body's way of trying to tell you something.
  • Unusual Bleeding or Discharge: Experiencing bleeding that's not related to your usual menstrual cycle? Or maybe you're noticing an odd vaginal discharge? It's time to pay attention.
  • Bowel Habits in Flux: A change in how your bowels behave – be it constipation, diarrhea, or shifts in their regular rhythm – can also raise the flag.
  • Abdominal Growth: If you notice your belly growing in size, it could be due to the cancer's growth or fluid collecting in your abdomen.
  • Frequent Urination: Suddenly finding yourself heading to the bathroom more often than usual? The pressure from the cancer on your bladder might be causing this.

Remember, your body has its own way of communicating with you. And if you find any of these signs showing up uninvited, it's time to chat with a healthcare provider. Swift action could make all the difference. Don't ignore your body's whispers – they might be trying to tell you something important.

Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer. The name might sound intimidating, but let's break it down into simpler terms. It's about the cells in a specific part of your body – the cervix. Picture the cervix as the bottom part of your uterus, like a little donut that links your uterus to your vagina. It's made up of these tiny cells that can sometimes play tricks on us.

So, how does cervical cancer show up? It starts with the usual checks – those gynecological exams and Pap tests. These are like your armor against this cancer. They're your way of knowing what's happening inside your body. Because here's the deal: sometimes, those cells on your cervix decide to act up. They change into something called "precancerous cells." Not all of them turn into cancer, but it's crucial to spot and treat them before they even think about it.

Now, let's talk about signs. In the beginning, cervical cancer isn't a fan of revealing itself – no flashy symptoms. It might take a while before you notice anything odd. But guess what? Regular screenings can catch it early before it even tries to make a fuss.

If it's stage 1 of cervical cancer, you might see:

  • A bit of watery or bloody vaginal discharge that smells odd.
  • Bleeding after sex or in between your regular periods.
  • Longer or heavier periods than usual.

And if things get more serious and the cancer spreads:

  • Peeing might get tricky, with some blood showing up.
  • Bathroom visits might come with discomfort, bleeding, or pain.
  • You could feel more tired, lose weight and appetite, or just not feel great overall.
  • Your back might ache, your legs might swell, or your belly might hurt.

Remember, if something doesn't feel right – like odd bleeding or strange discharge – don't play detective. Get checked. A full gynecological exam, including a Pap test, is the way to go. Your body has its own way of telling you things. And sometimes, it's better to have an expert listen.

Uterine cancer

Uterine cancer – it might sound complex, but let's make it clear. It's like two kinds of cancer under one roof: endometrial cancer (more common) and uterine sarcoma (rarer). Endometrial cancer makes its home in your endometrium – the inner lining of your uterus. This one's pretty common in the world of gynecologic cancers. Uterine sarcoma, on the other hand, takes root in the myometrium – the muscular wall of your uterus. But don't worry, it's a rare occurrence.

Now, let's talk about treatment. Surgery is often the first step, especially for endometrial cancer. Your uterus and cervix may be removed during a hysterectomy.

  • The classic total abdominal hysterectomy is where they make an incision in your abdomen.
  • The vaginal route, where they pull off the procedure through your vagina.
  • The radical approach comes into play if cancer spreads to your cervix. Here, they take out more tissue, including the top part of your vagina.
  • A minimally invasive option, where small incisions are made, either laparoscopically or robotically.

During a hysterectomy, there are often two more procedures in the mix:

  • Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO), which means taking out your ovaries and fallopian tubes to ensure they've tackled all the cancer.
  • Lymph node dissection (lymphadenectomy), is about removing lymph nodes to check if cancer is on the move.
Vaginal cancer

Vaginal cancer, though uncommon, can develop in the lining of your vaginal walls. Think of your vagina as the path connecting your cervix and vulva.

Different from cervical or uterine cancer, vaginal cancer has its own story.

Let's dive into its types:

  • Squamous cell carcinoma starts in flat vaginal cells – the most common kind.
  • Adenocarcinoma begins in gland cells, often in those over 50. Clear cell adenocarcinoma is linked to exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) before birth.
  • Melanoma appears in cells giving your vagina color – very rare.
  • Sarcoma emerges in vaginal wall connective and muscle tissue – also rare. Rhabdomyosarcoma is usual in kids, while leiomyosarcoma affects older adults.

Signs and symptoms of vaginal cancer include:

  • Bleeding after intercourse.
  • Odd bleeding after menopause.
  • Unusual discharge.
  • Pain during intercourse.
  • A lump in your vagina.
  • Painful urination or urge.
  • Constipation or dark stools.
  • Bowel urges with empty bowels.
  • Pelvic pain.

Remember, vaginal cancer might stay hidden, so regular check-ups are wise. And if symptoms arise, don't always assume it's vaginal cancer. But if you notice these signs, see your provider.

For protection:

  • Regular pelvic exams and Pap tests, as advised.
  • Discuss HPV vaccine options with your provider.
  • Say no to smoking – a step towards reducing cancer risks, including vaginal cancer.

Navigating Treatment of Gynecologic Cancer

When faced with a diagnosis of gynecologic cancer, ask to be referred to a gynecologic oncologist— a specialized doctor who is well-equipped to tackle cancers affecting a woman's reproductive system.

Types of Treatment

Remember, different doctors on your team will handle different parts of your treatment:

Throughout your journey to diagnose and treat gynecologic cancer, you'll be supported by a skilled team of experts who are there to help you recover. They're all working together at Criticare Asia Hospitals to ensure you get the best care possible.


Receiving a gynecological cancer diagnosis can feel overwhelming, but remember, early detection and treatment can make a difference. Being aware of the signs of ovarian, uterine, and vaginal cancer and reaching out to a doctor promptly is crucial for effective care. Regular gynaecological check-ups and making healthy lifestyle choices can lower your risk of developing these cancers. If you have any concerns about gynaecological cancer or your health in general, don't hesitate to talk to your doctor. By staying informed and prioritizing your well-being, you're actively fighting against gynaecological cancer. If you're concerned about gynaecological cancer, reach out to an Expert Gynaecologist at Criticare Asia Hospitals. They're here to guide you on the path to better health and recovery.